P1000645This year the first expert identification of lichens was carried out.

Ishpi Blatchley, our expert, made an initial survey and then took a small group round to show us what she had found in her 2 hours in the cemetery. We learnt that each lichen is really 2 organisms not one – a fungus (which has shape and form – usually producing spores) living with and providing physical protection for one or more algae which carry out photosynthesis and produce food for both.

Ishpi took us to a humble looking tree that had 15 different species of lichen on its bark with branches conveniently at the right height for inspection!

The majority of lichens were no more than a few centimetres in diameter and in a wonderful range of colours – almost luminous green to soft sea-green to bright yellow ochre. Their world really came alive on using a lens – fruiting bodies (fruits) in different shapes and colours, some resembling little jam tarts.

We learnt about the three main groups of lichen: crustose, foliose and fruticose. The crustose (crusty) ones were very much ‘stuck’ to the bark and no amount of scraping with a fingernail could dislodge them. In contrast the foliose (‘leafy’) ones had delicate little lobes that could be dislodged. The fruticose (bushy) lichens were very much 3D – quite bushy and much less common in the cemetery.

Identification relies on putting them into their 3 main groups – looking at their growth form, their fruiting bodies, and colour. Where they choose to grow if on grave stones is also relevant– some preferring acid stones (e.g. granite or sandstone) and some more basic stone (ie limestone). Ishpi did some simple tests in the field but others needed to be identified under a microscope.

Some of those we were shown included: Psilolechia lucida, Lecanora muralis, Lecanora campestris, Lecanora chlarotera, Lecidella elaeochroma, Xanthoria parietina, Xanthoria calcicola, Parmelia sulcata.

Lichens recorded in Margravine Cemetery TQ 240782 (covers 2 monads) 25/01/2016 Ishpi Blatchley
Lichen nameCons EvalSubstrateSm scale habitatAbundanceComments
Aspicilia contorta subsp. contortaLC Saxlm chtA/O
Bilimbia sabuletorumLC BryA/R
Buellia aethaleaLC Saxsd crA/O
Buellia ocellataLC Saxgr crA/R
Caloplaca arcisLC NS Saxlm chtA/R
Caloplaca citrina s. lat.LC Saxlm hdA/F
Caloplaca dichroaLC NS Sc Saxlm hdA/F
Caloplaca flavescensLC Saxlm chtA/O
Caloplaca flavocitrinaLC Saxlm chtA/O
Caloplaca oasisLC Saxlm hdA/F
Caloplaca saxicolaLC Saxlm hdA/R
Candelariella aurella f. aurellaLC Saxlm, STaA/F
Candelariella reflexaLC CortCPrA/O
Candelariella vitellina f. vitellinaLC Saxgr crA/F
Catillaria chalybeia var. chalybeiaLC SaxbrA/R
Cladonia chlorophaea s. lat.LC Saxsd hdA/R
Cladonia coniocraeaLC Terrgr chA/R
Collema crispum var. crispumLC Saxlm pavA/Rwithin kerbed grave
Collema tenax var. tenaxLC Saxlm pavA/Rwithin kerbed grave
Diploschistes muscorumLC LicA/Rassoc with Clad coniocraea
Flavoparmelia caperataLC Cort+SaxCPr, gr crA/O
Flavoparmelia sorediansLC Sc CortCPrA/R
Hyperphyscia adglutinataLC CortCAeA/F
Hypogymnia physodesLC CortCPrA/R
Hypotrachyna revoluta s. lat. CortCPrA/O
Lecania inundataLC NS Saxgr kbA/R
Lecanora albescensLC SaxlmA/F
Lecanora chlaroteraLC CortCFxA/O
Lecanora dispersaLC Saxlm chtA/F
Lecanora expallensLC CortCFxA/R
Lecanora muralisLC Saxgr cr, STaA/F
Lecanora polytropaLC Saxgr kbA/O
Lecidella elaeochroma f. elaeochromaLC CortCFxA/F
Lecidella stigmateaLC Saxlm, STaA/O
Lepraria incana s. str.LC Saxsd crA/O
Melanelixia fuliginosaLC Saxgr crA/R
Melanelixia glabratulaLC Saxgr crA/O
Melanelixia subauriferaLC Cort+Saxgr cr, CPrA/F
Parmelia sulcataLC Cort+Saxsd cr, CPrA/O
Parmotrema perlatumLC CortCPrA/O
Peltigera hymeninaLC TerrA/R
Phaeophyscia orbicularisLC Saxlm hdA/F
Physcia adscendensLC Cort+SaxCPr, lm hdA/F
Physcia caesiaLC SaxSTa, lm hdA/O
Physcia dubiaLC Saxsd hd, gr hdA/O
Physcia tenellaLC CortCPrA/O
Porpidia tuberculosaLC Saxsd hdA/O
Protoblastenia rupestrisLC Saxlm hdA/O
Psilolechia leprosaLC M* Saxgr cr Cu roA/R
Psilolechia lucidaLC Saxsd hdA/O
Punctelia jeckeriLC CortCPrA/O
Ramalina farinaceaLC CortCPr, CFxA/Rvery small thalli
Rhizocarpon reductumLC Saxgr cr, sd hdA/F
Scoliciosporum umbrinumLC Saxsd crA/O
Trapelia coarctataLC Saxsd crA/R
Placopyrenium fuscellumLC Saxlm hdA/R
Verrucaria nigrescens f. nigrescensLC Saxlm chtA/F
Xanthoria calcicolaLC Saxlm urnA/R
Xanthoria candelaria s. lat.LC Cort+SaxCPr, gr crA/O
Xanthoria parietinaLC Cort+SaxCPr, lm hdA/F
Xanthoria polycarpaLC CortCPrA/R
Lecanora compallensLC NS CortCPrA/R
Candelaria concolorLC CortCPrA/R
Illosporiopsis christianseniiLC NS LicA/Ron Physcia sp
Cladonia squamosa s. lat. TerrA/RK+y-r
Amandinea punctataLC CortCPrA/O
Porpidia crustulataLC Saxsd A/R
Xanthoparmelia mougeotiiLC Saxsd base to gr hdA/RJohn Vivian mem
Caloplaca crenulatellaLC Saxsd kb,co slabA/O
Catillaria lenticularisLC Saxlm hdA/O
Lecanora campestris subsp. campestrisLC Saxlm hdA/O
Physconia griseaLC CortA/Olondon plane
Conservation EvaluationLCLeast concern
NSNationally scarce
Scin Scotland
SubstrateCorton trees
Saxon stone
Bryover mos
Terron earth
Licon other lichen
Small scale habitathdheadstone
cht chest
cu rocopper runoff
STaasphalt path